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AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL – CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA – A SHORT VISIT

March 19, 2015

Australian War Memorial

The Australian War Memorial is Australia’s national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organizations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. The memorial includes an extensive national military museum. The Australian War Memorial was opened in 1941, and is widely regarded as one of the most significant memorials of its type in the world

The Memorial is located in Australia’s capital, Canberra. It is the northern terminus of the city’s ceremonial land axis, which stretches from Parliament House on Capital Hill along a line passing through the summit of the cone-shaped Mount Ainslie to the northeast. No continuous roadway links the two points, but there is a clear line of sight from the front balcony of Parliament House to the War Memorial, and from the front steps of the War Memorial back to Parliament House.

The Australian War Memorial consists of three parts – the Commemorative Area (shrine) including the Hall of Memory with the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Lone Pine - GallipoliSoldier, the Memorial’s galleries (museum), and the Research Center (records). The Memorial also has an outdoor Sculpture Garden. The Memorial is currently open daily from 10 am until 5 pm, except on Christmas Day.
Many people include “Anzac Parade” as part of the Australian War Memorial because of the Parade’s physical design, leading up to the War Memorial, but it is maintained separately by the National Capital Authority (NCA).
Charles Bean, Australia’s official World War I historian, first conceived a museum memorial to Australian soldiers while observing the 1916 battles in France. The Australian War Records Section was established in May 1917 to ensure preservation of records relating to the war being fought at the time. Records and relics were exhibited first in Melbourne and later Canberra.

An architectural competition in 1927 did not produce a winning entry. However two entrants, Sydney architects Emil Sodersten and John Crust, were encouraged to represent a joint design. A limited budget and the effects of the Depression confined the scope of the project.

The building was completed in 1941, after the outbreak of World War II. It was officially opened following a Remembrance Day ceremony on 11 November 1941 by the then Governor-General Lord Gowrie, a former soldier whose honours include the Victoria Cross. Additions since the 1940s have allowed the remembrance of Australia’s participation in other more recent conflicts. The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier was added in 1993, to mark the 75th anniversary of the end of World War I.

The sculpture garden on the west lawn of the Memorial contains a variety of outdoor monuments. The sidewalk through the garden is embedded with bronze plaques commemorating various branches of service, specific units, and historical events. There is also a number of sculptures, including a gigantic figure of a World War II-era Australian soldier that was originally located in the Hall of Memory, before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was placed there. There is a gun turret from HMAS Brisbane, a gun barrel from the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia and the barrel from the Amiens Gun – a huge railroad gun captured from the Germans during World War I.

This area is used for special displays during annual Memorial Open Days, and summertime band concerts are held on the nearby lawn.

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AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

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AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL COURTYARD

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL COURTYARD

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LEST WE FORGET  - MEMORIAL FROM CAMP RUSSELL, URUZCAN PROVINCE , AFGHANISTAN

LEST WE FORGET – MEMORIAL FROM CAMP RUSSELL, URUZCAN PROVINCE , AFGHANISTAN

LEST WE FORGET

LEST WE FORGET

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MEMORIAL FROM CAMP HOLLAND, URUZCAN PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN

MEMORIAL FROM CAMP HOLLAND, URUZCAN PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN

MEMORIAL FROM CAMP HOLLAND, URUZCAN PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN

MEMORIAL FROM CAMP HOLLAND, URUZCAN PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN

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15 CENTIMETRE  KANONE 18 (KRUPP)

15 CENTIMETRE KANONE 18 (KRUPP)

15 CENTIMETRE  KANONE 18 (KRUPP)

15 CENTIMETRE KANONE 18 (KRUPP)

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9.2 INCH HOWITZER

9.2 INCH HOWITZER

9.2 INCH HOWITZER

9.2 INCH HOWITZER

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HMQS  GAYUNDAH GUN

HMQS GAYUNDAH GUN

HMQS GAYUNDAH GUN

HMQS GAYUNDAH GUN

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HMAS BRISBANE GUN MOUNT

HMAS BRISBANE GUN MOUNT

HMAS BRISBANE GUN MOUNT

HMAS BRISBANE GUN MOUNT

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AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER

AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER

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SIMPSON AND HIS DONKEY  1915   BY  PETER CORLETT 1988

SIMPSON AND HIS DONKEY 1915 BY PETER CORLETT 1988

SIMPSON AND HIS DONKEY  1915   BY  PETER CORLETT 1988

SIMPSON AND HIS DONKEY 1915 BY PETER CORLETT 1988

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ENLISTMENT POSTER  1914

ENLISTMENT POSTER 1914

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THE CHARGE OF THE 3RD LIGHT HORSE BRIGADE  AT THE NEK,7TH AUGUST  1915

THE CHARGE OF THE 3RD
LIGHT HORSE BRIGADE AT THE NEK, 7TH AUGUST 1915

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WATER CARRIER

WATER CARRIER

WATER CARRIER

WATER CARRIER

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ANZAC FORCES CARRIED THESE ITEMS TO THE FRONT

ANZAC FORCES CARRIED THESE ITEMS TO THE FRONT

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TURKISH FORCES AT THE END OF THE WAR

TURKISH FORCES AT THE END OF THE WAR

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WAR MEMORIAL DIORAMAS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

FIRST WORLD WAR DIORAMA

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A 77 MM GUN ON DISPLAY

A 77 MM GUN ON DISPLAY

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SUPPLYING THE ARMY

SUPPLYING THE ARMY

SUPPLY TRUCK

SUPPLY TRUCK

SUPPLY TRUCK

SUPPLY TRUCK

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VARIOUS PHOTOGRAPHS PROJECTED ON A SCREEN AT THE WAR MEMORIAL

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

WORLD WAR 1 PHOTOGRAPH

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WORLD WAR ll

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk A29-133, “Polly”

By August 1942 the Kittyhawk aircraft known as “Polly” had arrived with No. 75 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, at Milne Bay on the far eastern tip of Papua. “Polly” was the regular aircraft of Flight Lieutenant Bruce “Buster” Brown, and was flown in the defence of Milne Bay. Brown named it “Polly”, after his girlfriend.

During late 1942 the Kittyhawk was damaged several times while fighting Zeros. On 14 April 1943 “Polly” was flown by Squadron Leader Wilfred Arthur against the last major Japanese air attack on Milne Bay. Although Arthur’s guns failed after take-off, he still led his pilots into action. He was later awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery.

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk A29-133, “Polly"

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk A29-133, “Polly”

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk A29-133, “Polly"

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk A29-133, “Polly”

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SCOUT CAR

SCOUT CAR

SCOUT CAR

SCOUT CAR

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CHEVROLET 1941 MODE; 41/E22 GENERAL SERVICE LORRY

CHEVROLET 1941 MODE; 41/E22 GENERAL SERVICE LORRY

CHEVROLET 1941 MODE; 41/E22 GENERAL SERVICE LORRY

CHEVROLET 1941 MODE; 41/E22 GENERAL SERVICE LORRY

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1940 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER SEDAN WITH GAS PRODUCER

1940 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER SEDAN WITH GAS PRODUCER

1940 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER SEDAN WITH GAS PRODUCER

1940 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER SEDAN WITH GAS PRODUCER

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VICKERS GUNNER  -  New Guinea during the Borneo campaigns, a soldier leans back in the Kuni grass to hide from Japanese snipers. His gaunt body pulls back to engage the gun, drawing on all his physical strength. Original plaster cast made in 1944, with the bronze edition cast in 1950.

VICKERS GUNNER – New Guinea during the Borneo campaigns, a soldier leans back in the Kuni grass to hide from Japanese snipers. His gaunt body pulls back to engage the gun, drawing on all his physical strength. Original plaster cast made in 1944, with the bronze edition cast in 1950.

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SANDAKAN DEATH MARCH ---   Australian prisoners were sent to Sandakan in 1942 to build an airstrip. At first they were treated reasonably well. Gradually, however, rations were reduced and bashings increased. By late 1944, with Allied forces advancing toward Borneo, the Japanese decided to send about 2,000 Australian and British prisoners westward to Ranau, in Borneo’s rugged interior. Weak and sick prisoners staggered for about 260 kilometres along jungle tracks. Many died on the way, their bodies never recovered. Those unable to continue were killed; those too weak to march had been left behind in Sandakan, where all died or were killed. Only six – all Australians – out of about a thousand sent to Ranau survived the war. The Sandakan “death march” remains the greatest single atrocity committed against Australians in war.

SANDAKAN DEATH MARCH — Australian prisoners were sent to Sandakan in 1942 to build an airstrip. At first they were treated reasonably well. Gradually, however, rations were reduced and bashings increased.
By late 1944, with Allied forces advancing toward Borneo, the Japanese decided to send about 2,000 Australian and British prisoners westward to Ranau, in Borneo’s rugged interior. Weak and sick prisoners staggered for about 260 kilometres along jungle tracks. Many died on the way, their bodies never recovered. Those unable to continue were killed; those too weak to march had been left behind in Sandakan, where all died or were killed. Only six – all Australians – out of about a thousand sent to Ranau survived the war.
The Sandakan “death march” remains the greatest single atrocity committed against Australians in war.

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