Skip to content

GLACIER PARK AND THE CANADIAN ROCKIES – PHOTOS AND POEMS

August 20, 2014

FROM JUNE 1 – 8, 2013 , LEONARD EPSTEIN AND JANELLE BURGESS, TRAVELED THROUGH GLACIER PARK IN MONTANA  AND THE CANADIAN ROCKIES TO SEE SOME AMAZING SCENIC MOUNTAINS AND GLACIERS.

Glacier National Park (U.S.)

Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The park encompasses over 1 million acres (4,000 km2) and includes parts of two mountain ranges (sub-ranges of the Rocky Mountains), over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants, and hundreds of species of animals. This vast pristine ecosystem is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the “Crown of the Continent Ecosystem”, a region of protected land encompassing 16,000 square miles (41,000 km2).

The region that became Glacier National Park was first inhabited by Native Americans. Upon the arrival of European explorers, it was dominated by the Blackfeet in the east and the Flathead in the western regions. Soon after the establishment of the park on May 11, 1910, a number of hotels and chalets were constructed by the Great Northern Railway. These historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places. By 1932 work was completed on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, later designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, which provided greater accessibility for automobiles into the heart of the park.

The mountains of Glacier National Park began forming 170 million years ago when ancient rocks were forced eastward up and over much younger rock strata. Known as theLewis Overthrust, these sedimentary rocks are considered to have some of the finest fossilized examples of extremely early life found anywhere on Earth. The current shapes of the Lewis and Livingston mountain ranges and positioning and size of the lakes show the telltale evidence of massive glacial action, which carved U-shaped valleys and left behind moraines which impounded water, creating lakes. Of the estimated 150 glaciers which existed in the park in the mid-19th century, only 25 active glaciers remained by 2010. Scientists studying the glaciers in the park have estimated that all the glaciers may disappear by 2020 if the current climate patterns persist.

Glacier National Park has almost all its original native plant and animal species. Large mammals such as the grizzly, moose, and mountain goat, as well as rare or endangered species like the wolverine and Canadian lynx, inhabit the park. Hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, and a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented. The park has numerous ecosystems ranging from prairie to tundra. Notably, the easternmost forests of western red cedar and hemlock grow in the southwest portion of the park. Large forest fires are uncommon in the park. However, in 2003 over 13% of the park burned.

Glacier National Park borders Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada—the two parks are known as the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and were designated as the world’s first International Peace Park in 1932. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, and in 1995 as World Heritage site.

History

According to archeological evidence, Native Americans first arrived in the Glacier area some 10,000 years ago. The earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Salish, Flathead, Shoshone, and Cheyenne. The Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what later became the park, as well as the Great Plains immediately to the east.[The park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the harsh winter winds of the plains, allowing them to supplement their traditional bison hunts with other game meat. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west and south of the park. When the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide. To the Blackfeet, the mountains of this area, especially Chief Mountain and the region in the southeast at Two Medicine, were considered the “Backbone of the World” and were frequented during vision quests.In 1895 Chief White Calf of the Blackfeet authorized the sale of the mountain area, some 800,000 acres (3,200 km2), to the U.S. government for $1.5 million, with the understanding that they would maintain usage rights to the land for hunting as long as the ceded stripe will be public land of the United States. This established the current boundary between the park and the reservation.

While exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles (80 km) of the area that is now the park.A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area that later became the park. In 1885 George Bird Grinnell hired noted explorer (and later well regarded author) James Willard Schultz to guide him on a hunting expedition into what would later become the park. After several more trips to the region, Grinnell became so inspired by the scenery that he spent the next two decades working to establish a national park. In 1901 Grinnell wrote a description of the region in which he referred to it as the “Crown of the Continent”. His efforts to protect the land make him the premier contributor to this cause. A few years after Grinnell first visited, Henry L. Stimson and two companions, including a Blackfoot, climbed the steep east face of Chief Mountain in 1892.

In 1891 the Great Northern Railway crossed the Continental Divide at Marias Pass 5,213 feet (1,589 m), which is along the southern boundary of the park. In an effort to stimulate use of the railroad, the Great Northern soon advertised the splendors of the region to the public. The company lobbied the United States Congress. In 1897 the park was designated as a forest preserve. Under the forest designation, mining was still allowed but was not commercially successful. Meanwhile, proponents of protecting the region kept up their efforts. In 1910, under the influence of the Boone and Crockett Club, spearheaded by Club members George Bird Grinnell, Henry L. Stimson, and the railroad, a bill was introduced into the U.S. Congress which redesignated the region from a forest reserve to a national park. This bill was signed into law by President William Howard Taft on May 11, 1910. In 1910 George Bird Grinnell wrote, “This Park, the country owes to the Boone and Crockett Club, whose members discovered the region, suggested it being set aside, caused the bill to be introduced into congress and awakened interest in it all over the country”.

From May until August, 1910, the forest reserve supervisor, Fremont Nathan Haines, managed the Park’s resources as the first acting superintendent. In August 1910, William Logan was appointed the Park’s first superintendent. While the designation of the forest reserve confirmed the traditional usage rights of the Blackfeet, the enabling legislation of the National Park does not mention the guarantees to the Native Americans. It is the position of the United States government that with the special designation as a National Park the mountains ceded their multi-purpose public land status and the former rights ceased to exist as it was confirmed by the Court of Claims in 1935. Some Blackfeet held that their traditional usage rights still exist de jure. In the 1890s armed standoffs were avoided narrowly several times.

The Great Northern Railway, under the supervision of president Louis W. Hill, built a number of hotels and chalets throughout the park in the 1910s to promote tourism. These buildings, constructed and operated by a Great Northern subsidiary called the Glacier Park Company, were modeled on Swiss architecture as part of Hill’s plan to portray Glacier as “America’s Switzerland”. Hill was especially interested in sponsoring artists to come to the park, building tourist lodges that displayed their work. His hotels in the park never made a profit but they attracted thousands of visitors who came via the Great Northern.

Vacationers commonly took pack trips on horseback between the lodges or utilized the seasonal stagecoach routes to gain access to the Many Glacier area in the northeast.

The chalets, built between 1910 and 1913, included Belton, St. Mary, Going-to-the-Sun, Many Glacier, Two Medicine, Sperry, Granite Park, Cut Bank, and Gunsight Lake. The railway also built Glacier Park Lodge, adjacent to the park on its east side, and the Many Glacier Hotel on the east shore of Swift current Lake. Louis Hill personally selected the sites for all of these buildings, choosing each for their dramatic scenic backdrops and views. Another developer, John Lewis, built the Lewis Glacier Hotel on Lake McDonald in 1913–1914. The Great Northern Railway bought the hotel in 1930 and it was later renamed Lake McDonald Lodge.[Some of the chalets were in remote backcountry locations accessible only by trail. Today, only Sperry, Granite Park, and Belton Chalets are still in operation, while a building formerly belonging to Two Medicine Chalet is now Two Medicine Store. The surviving chalet and hotel buildings within the park are now designated as National Historic Landmarks.In total, 350 buildings and structures within the park are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including ranger stations, backcountry patrol cabins, fire lookouts, and concession facilities.

After the park was well established and visitors began to rely more on automobiles, work was begun on the 53-mile (85 km) long Going-to-the-Sun Road, completed in 1932. Also known simply as the Sun Road, the road bisects the park and is the only route that ventures deep into the park, going over the Continental Divide at Logan Pass, 6,646 feet (2,026 m) at the midway point. The Sun Road is also listed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 1985 was designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. Another route, along the southern boundary between the park and National Forests, is U.S. Route 2, which crosses the Continental Divide at Marias Pass and connects the towns of West Glacier and East Glacier.

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a New Deal relief agency for young men, played a major role between 1933 and 1942 in developing both Glacier National Park and Yellowstone National Park. CCC projects included reforestation, campground development, trail construction, fire hazard reduction, and fire-fighting work.The increase in motor vehicle traffic through the park during the 1930s resulted in the construction of new concession facilities at Swiftcurrent and Rising Sun, both designed for automobile-based tourism. These early auto camps are now also listed on the National Register.

In 2011 Glacier National Park was honored on the seventh quarter in the America the Beautiful Quarters series.

(WIKIPEDIA)

HERE ARE SOME PHOTOS OF GLACIER PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK ENTRANCE

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK ENTRANCE

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER  NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

 

 

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

GLACIER PARK HOTEL

GLACIER PARK HOTEL

GLACIER PARK HOTEL

GLACIER PARK HOTEL

GLACIER PARK

GLACIER PARK

Red Jammers are  buses used at Glacier National Park in the United States to transport park visitors. While the buses are called reds, the bus drivers are called  jammers because of the sound the gears made when shifting on the steep roads of the park. The “jamming” sound came from the  unsynchronised transmissions, where double-clutching was a must.

Originally tested at Yosemite National Park in California in 1935, they were manufactured as the Model 706 by the White Motor Company from 1936-1939. The distinctive vehicles, with roll-back canvas convertible tops, were the product of noted industrial designer Alexis de Sakhnoffsky, and originally operated in seven National Parks. Glacier National Park still operates 33 of their original buses today on the Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park, Montana, United States, where they are referred to as Red Jammers. Glacier’s “missing” buses still survive to this day. The park kept one in its original condition at their headquarters in West Glacier, while the other operates in Anaconda, MT giving tourists a ride around the town. Yellowstone National Park park runs 7 of their original 98 and also keeps one in its original condition. In addition, Gettysburg National Battlefield runs two of Yellowstone’s buses for tourists.

Glacier’s were restored from 2000-2002 by Ford Motor Company in conjunction with  TransGlobal in Livonia Michigan to run on propane or gas to lessen their environmental impact.The bodies were removed from their original chassis and built upon modern Ford E-Series van chassis. The original standard transmissions were also replaced in 1989 with newer automatics, removing the trademark “jamming” sound. Yellowstone’s 7 buses were restored in 2007 by TransGlobal LLC of Livonia Michigan.

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER ALONG THE SIDE OF THE ROAD

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER ALONG THE SIDE OF THE ROAD

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER

GLACIER PARK

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER

GLACIER PARK RED JAMMER

WATERTON LAKES NATIONAL PARK
Rugged, windswept mountains rise abruptly out of gentle prairie grassland in spectacular Waterton Lakes National Park. Here, several different ecological regions meet and interact in a landscape shaped by wind, fire, flooding, and abundant plants and wildlife. The park helps protect the unique and unusually diverse physical, biological and cultural resources found in the Crown of the Continent: one of the narrowest places in the Rocky Mountains.

Waterton Lakes National Park is a national park located in the southwest corner of  Alberta, Canada, and borders Glacier National Park in Montana, USA, Waterton was Canada’s fourth national park, formed in 1895 and named after Waterton Lake, in turn after the Victorian naturalist and conservationist Charles Waterton. The park contains 505 km2 (195 sq mi) of rugged mountains and wilderness.

Operated by Parks Canada, Waterton is open all year, but the main tourist season is during July and August. The only commercial facilities available within the park are located at the Waterton Park townsite. The park ranges in elevation from 1,290 metres (4,232 ft) at the townsite to 2,910 m (9,547 ft) at Mount Blakiston. It offers many scenic trails, including Crypt Lake trail. In 2012/2013, Waterton Lakes National Park had 402,542 visitors.

The park was the subject of a short film in 2011’s National Parks Project, directed by  Peter lynch, and scored by Cadence Weapon, Laura Barrett and Mark Hamilton.

American TV talk show host David Letterman recommended the park on the Monday, 24 June 2013 episode of his nightly show. In an interview with Melissa McCarthy he told her, “when you go to Montana, you gotta’ go North to Glacier … and then dip-up into Waterton International Peace Park, it’s the Canadian part of Glacier National Park. It’s stunning.” The quotation was covered by several Canadian news outlets.

 History

In 1932, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was formed from Waterton and Glacier. It was dedicated to world peace by Sir Charles Arthur Mander on behalf of Rotary International. Although the park has a lot of diversity for its size, the main highlight is the Waterton lakes—the deepest in the Canadian Rockies—overlooked by the historic Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site.

Biosphere Reserve

In 1979, Waterton and bordering Glacier National park in the US were designated as World Biosphere reserves, preserving mountains, prairie, lakes and freshwater wetlands ecosystems. Habitats represented in the parks’ range include: prairie grasslands, aspen grove forests, alpine tundra/high meadows, lower sub alpine forests, deciduous and coniferous forests.

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

WATERTON LAKES

Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site - The Prince of Wales Hotel overlooks Waterton Lake.

Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site –
The Prince of Wales Hotel overlooks Waterton Lake.

Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site

Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site

BIG HORN RAMS AT WATERTON NATIONAL PARK

BIG HORN RAMS AT WATERTON NATIONAL PARK

—————————

BAR U RANCH NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE

The Bar U Ranch National Historic Site, located near Longview, Alberta, is a preserved ranch that for 70 years was one of the leading ranching operations in Canada. At its peak, the ranch extended over 160,000 acres (65,000 ha) with 30,000 cattle and 1000 Percheron horses. Two owners were instrumental in the establishment of the Calgary Stampede, forming part of the Big Four.

The ranch was founded by Fred Stimson, whose North West Cattle Company kept cattle on 147,000 acres (59,000 ha) of open range between 1881 and 1902. Stimson used the Bar U brand for NWCC stock. From 1902 to 1925 the Bar U was operated by George Lane and his business partners, whose business ventures included meat packing, mills and other farms and ranches. Lane renamed the operation the Bar U Ranch, buying out his partners in 1908. Lane raised both cattle and Percherons.

From 1927 to 1950 the Bar U was part of a group of ranches operated by Patrck Burns. Burns grew grains on the ranch, which remained one of the largest ranches in Canada during the period.

After 1950 much of the ranch land was sold. The present National Historic Site is the central remnant,owned by Parks Canada, which bought the property in 1991 and opened it to the public in 1995.

A number of prominent personalities were associated with the Bar U. In 1891 Harry Longabaugh was a horse breaker at the Bar U, later becoming known as an outlaw, the Sundance Kid.Edward, Prince of Wales visited the Bar U in 1919 and was so taken with it that he bought a neighboring ranch, which he named the EP. Charles M. Russell painted a series of paintings at the Bar U.

(WIKIPEDIA)

POEM ON A PLAQUE AT THE BAR U RANCH

Love is the key that opens the heart
Hope is the dream that awakens the soul
Peace is the light that guides the way
Faith is the certainty that sees us through

BAR U RANCH PLAQUE

BAR U RANCH PLAQUE

BAR U RANCH STATUE

BAR U RANCH STATUE

————————-

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

 

Banff National Park is Canada’s oldest national park, established in 1885 in the Rocky Mountains. The park, located 110–180 km (68–112 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, encompasses 6,641 km2 (2,564 sq mi) Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial center of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley.

The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff’s early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, and attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees, and through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s.Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. As Banff is one of the world’s most visited national parks, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, and new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity.

History

Throughout its history, Banff National Park has been shaped by tension between conservation and development interests. The park was established in 1885, in response to conflicting claims over who discovered hot springs there, and who had the right to develop the hot springs for commercial interests. Instead, Prime Minister John A. MacDonald set aside the hot springs as a small, protected reserve, which was later expanded to include Lake Louise and other areas extending north to the Columbia Icefields.

Early history

Archaeological evidence found at Vermilion Lakes radiocarbon dates the first human activity in Banff to 10,300 B.P Prior to European contact, aboriginals, including the Stoneys, Kootenay, Tsuu T’ina, Kainai, Peigans, and Siksika, were common in the region where they hunted bison and other game.

With the admission of British Columbia to Canada on 20 July 1871, Canada agreed to build a transcontinental railroad. Construction of the railroad began in 1875, with Kicking Horse Pass chosen, over the more northerly Yellowhead Pass, as the route through the Canadian Rockies. Ten years later, the last spike was driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia.

Rocky Mountains Park established

With conflicting claims over discovery of hot springs in Banff, Prime Minister John A. MacDonald decided to set aside a small reserve of 26 km2 (10 sq mi) around the hot springs at Cave and Basin as a public park known as the Banff Hot Springs Reserve in 1885. Under the Rocky Mountains Park Act, enacted on 23 June 1887, the park was expanded to 674 km2 (260 sq mi)and named Rocky Mountains Park. This was Canada’s first national park, and the second established in North America, after Yellowstone National Park. The Canadian Pacific Railway built the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise to attract tourists and increase the number of rail passengers.

The Stoney (Assiniboin) Indians were removed from the Banff National Park during 1890-1920. The park was designed to appeal to sportsmen, and tourists. Officials blamed the depletion of wildlife in the park on the Indians’ reliance on subsistence hunting. The exclusionary policy met the goals of sports hunting, tourism, and game conservation, as well as of those attempting to “civilize” the Indians.

Early on, Banff was popular with wealthy European tourists, who arrived in Canada via trans-Atlantic luxury liner and continued westward on the railroad, as well as upper-class American and English tourists. Some visitors participated in mountaineering activities, often hiring local guides. Tom Wilson, along with Jim and Bill Brewster, was among the first outfitters in Banff. The Alpine Club of Canada, established in 1906 by Arthur Oliver Wheeler and Elizabeth Parker, organized climbs and camps in the backcountry.

By 1911, Banff was accessible by automobile from Calgary. Beginning in 1916, the Brewsters offered motorcoach tours of Banff. In 1920, access to Lake Louise by road was available, and the Banff-Windermere Road opened in 1923 to connect Banff with British Columbia.

In 1902, the park was expanded to cover 11,400 km2 (4,400 sq mi), encompassing areas around Lake Louise, and the Bow, Red Deer, Kananaskis, and Spray rivers. Bowing to pressure from grazing and logging interests, the size of the park was reduced in 1911 to 4,663 km2 (1,800 sq mi), eliminating many foothills areas from the park. Park boundaries changed several more times up until 1930, when the size of Banff was fixed at 6,697 km2 (2,586 sq mi), with the passage of the National Parks Act. The Act also renamed the park as Banff National Park, named for the Canadian Pacific Railway station, which in turn was named after the Baffshire region in Scotland. With the construction of a new east gate in 1933, Alberta transferred 0.84 km2 (0.32 sq mi) to the park. This, along with other minor changes in the park boundaries in 1949, set the area of the park at 6,641 km2 (2,564 sq mi).

Coal mining

In 1887, local aboriginal tribes signed Treaty 7, which gave Canada rights to explore the land for resources. At the beginning of the 20th century, coal was mined near Lake Minnewanka in Banff. For a brief period, a mine operated at Anthracite, but was shut down in 1904. The Bankhead mine, at Cascade Mountain, was operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1903 to 1922. In 1926, the town was dismantled, with many buildings moved to the town of Banff and elsewhere.

Internment camps

During World War I, immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Germany and Ukraine were sent to Banff to work in internment camps. The main camp was located at Castle Mountain, and was moved to Cave and Basin during winter. Much early infrastructure and road construction was done by men of various Slavic origins although Ukrainians constituted a majority of those held in Banff.Historical plaques and a statue erected by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association commemorate those interned at Castle Mountain, and Cave and Basin National Historic Site where an interpretive pavilion dealing with Canada’s first national internment operations is scheduled for opening in June 2013.

In 1931, the Government of Canada enacted the Unemployment and Farm Relief Act which provided public works projects in the national parks during the Great Depression. In Banff, workers constructed a new bathhouse and pool at Upper Hot Springs, to supplement Cave and Basin. Other projects involved road building in the park, tasks around the Banff townsite, and construction of a highway connecting Banff and Jasper. In 1934, the Public Works Construction Act was passed, providing continued funding for the public works projects. New projects included construction of a new registration facility at Banff’s east gate, and construction of an administrative building in Banff. By 1940, the Icefields Parkway reached the Columbia Icefield area of Banff, and connected Banff and Jasper.

Internment camps were once again set up in Banff during World War II, with camps stationed at Lake Louise, Stoney Creek, and Healy Creek. Prison camps were largely composed of Mennonites from Saskatchewan. Japanese internment camps were not stationed in Banff during World War II, but rather were located in Jasper National Park where their detainees worked on the Yellowhead Highway and other projects.

Winter tourism

Winter tourism in Banff began in February 1917, with the first Banff Winter Carnival. It was marketed to a regional middle class audience, and became the centerpiece of local boosters aiming to attract visitors, which in wintertime were a low priority for the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR).The carnival featured a large ice palace, which in 1917 was built by internees. Carnival events included cross-country skiing, ski jumping, curling, snowshoe, and skijoring.In the 1930s, the first downhill ski resort, Sunshine Village, was developed by the Brewsters. Mount Norquay ski area was also developed during the 1930s, with the first chair lift installed there in 1948.

Since 1968, when the Banff Springs Hotel was winterized, Banff has been a year-round destination. In the 1960s, the Trans-Canada Highway was constructed, providing another transportation corridor through the Bow Valley, in addition to the Bow Valley Parkway, making the park more accessible. Also in the 1960s, Calgary International Airport was built.

Canada launched several bids to host the Winter Olympics in Banff, with the first bid for the 1964 Winter Olympics which were eventually awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. Canada narrowly lost a second bid, for the 1968 Winter Olympics, which were awarded to Grenoble, France. Once again, Banff launched a bid to host the 1972 Winter Olympics, with plans to hold the Olympics at Lake Louise. The 1972 bid was most controversial, as environmental lobby groups provided strong opposition to the bid, which had sponsorship from Imperial Oil. Bowing to pressure, Jean Chrétien, then the Minister of Environment, the government department responsible for Parks Canada, withdrew support for the bid, which was eventually lost to Sapporo, Japan. The cross-country ski events were held at the Canmore Nordic Centre Provincial Park at Canmore, Alberta, located just outside the eastern gates of Banff National Park on the Trans-Canad Highway, when nearby Calgary hosted the 1988 Winter Olympics.

Conservation

Since the original Rocky Mountains Park Act, subsequent acts and policies placed greater emphasis on conservation. With public sentiment tending towards environmentalism, Parks Canada issued major new policy in 1979, which emphasized conservation. The National Parks Act was amended in 1988, which made preserving ecological integrity the first priority in all park management decisions. The act also required each park to produce a management plan, with greater public participation.

In 1984, Banff was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with the other national and provincial parks that form the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, for the mountain landscapes containing mountain peaks, glaciers, lakes, waterfalls, canyons and limestone caves as well as fossils found here. With this designation came added obligations for conservation.

During the 1980s, Parks Canada moved to privatize many park services such as golf courses, and added user fees for use of other facilities and services to help deal with budget cuts. In 1990, the Town of Banff was incorporated, giving local residents more say regarding any proposed developments.

In the 1990s, development plans for the park, including expansion at Sunshine Village, were under fire with lawsuits filed by Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS). In the mid-1990s, the Banff-Bow Valley Study was initiated to find ways to better address environmental concerns, and issues relating to development in the park.(Wikipedia)

——————

CANMORE

With the cap on growth in the Town of Banff, Canmore, located just outside the Banff boundary, has been growing rapidly to serve increasing demands of tourists. Major developments proposals for Canmore have included the Three Sisters Golf Resorts, proposed in 1992, which has been subject of contentious debate, with environmental groups arguing that the development would fragment important wildlife corridors in the Bow Valley.

Some pictures of Canmore:

CANMORE

CANMORE

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA  – THE THREE SISTERS IN THE BACK GROUND.

The Three Sisters are a trio of peaks near Canmore, Alberta, Canada. They are known individually as Big Sister (Faith), Middle Sister (Charity) and Little Sister (Hope).

It was Albert Rogers, a nephew of Major Rogers, the discoverer of Rogers Pass in the Selkirk Mountains, who named the three peaks in 1883. He recalled, “There had been quite a heavy snowstorm in the night, and when we got up in the morning and looked out of the tent I noticed each of the three peaks had a heavy veil of snow on the north side and I said to the boys, ‘Look at the Three Nuns.’ They were called the Three Nuns for quite a while but later were called the ‘Three Sisters,’ more Protestant like I suppose.” The name “Three Sisters” first appeared on Dr. George Dawson’s map of 1886 and it is quite likely he who thought that the name Three Sisters would be more appropriate. The myth also refers to three nuns going for a walk one day and the three nuns never returned, also a reason why the peeks are called the Three Sisters.

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE. ALBERTA  = ST.MARYS ATHOLIC CHURCH

CANMORE. ALBERTA =
ST.MARYS ATHOLIC CHURCH

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

CANMORE, ALBERTA

———————————–

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN

Sulphur Mountain is a mountain in Banff National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains overlooking the town of Banff, Alberta, Canada.

The mountain was named in 1916 for the hot springs on its lower slopes. George Dawson had referred to this landform as Terrace Mountain on his 1886 map of the area. Sanson’s Peak was named in 1948 for Norman Bethune Sanson who diligently attended the observatory recording equipment atop Sulphur Mountain for nearly 30 years.

A gondola on the eastern slope goes to the summit ridge which has an upper terminal containing two restaurants, a gift shop, and multiple observation decks. The summit ridge provides views both westward up and east down the Bow Valley. A boardwalk can be followed on the north side to the top of Sanson’s Peak (2,256 m or 7,402 ft).

The true summit of Sulphur Mountain can be found on the southern side on a scrambler’s route. For purists not wanting to claim a summit without the effort, a wide trail (an old road) can be followed from the Banff Hot Springs parking lot to the upper gondola terminal. Purists should note that the gondola ride down is no longer free in the summer. There is also a 5.5 km switchback trail on the eastern slope that leads to the eastern summit.

As we ascend by gondola to the top of Sulphur we will see unparalleled views of Banff National Park.

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN GONDOLA

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

BANFF NATIONAL PARK

WILDLIFE ON SULPHUR MOUNTAIN

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILD LIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILD LIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILDLIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILDLIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILD LIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN WILD LIFE

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN COSMIC RAY STATION AND FIRST WEATHER STATION

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN COSMIC RAY STATION (PLAQUE)  - Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, a National Historic Site of Canada found atop Sulphur Mountain in Banff National Park, commemorates Canada's participation in the International Geophysical Year, during 1957 to 1958. Canada constructed nine sites to study cosmic rays, but this site in particular was the most important due to its higher elevation. The National Research Council constructed a laboratory at the site in the winter of 1956-57. The building was not visible from the Banff townsite as a condition of its construction.[1 The station was run by Dr. B. G. Wilson with the help of two assistants and was equipped with a standard IGY neutron monitor.The national research council maintained its operation until 1960 when the University of Calgary took over its operations and Dr. Wilson found a permanent position there. An improved NM64 neutron monitor was installed in 1963 but the IGY monitor continued to operate until 1972.The station ceased operations in 1978 and the building was dismantled in 1981.In 1982 it was designated as a National Historic Site. A plaque now marks the spot of the station's location.

SULPHUR MOUNTAIN COSMIC RAY STATION
(PLAQUE) –
Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, a National Historic Site of Canada found atop Sulphur Mountain in Banff National Park, commemorates Canada’s participation in the International Geophysical Year, during 1957 to 1958. Canada constructed nine sites to study cosmic rays, but this site in particular was the most important due to its higher elevation. The National Research Council constructed a laboratory at the site in the winter of 1956-57. The building was not visible from the Banff townsite as a condition of its construction.[1
The station was run by Dr. B. G. Wilson with the help of two assistants and was equipped with a standard IGY neutron monitor.The national research council maintained its operation until 1960 when the University of Calgary took over its operations and Dr. Wilson found a permanent position there. An improved NM64 neutron monitor was installed in 1963 but the IGY monitor continued to operate until 1972.The station ceased operations in 1978 and the building was dismantled in 1981.In 1982 it was designated as a National Historic Site. A plaque now marks the spot of the station’s location.

NORMAN BETHUNE SANSONE  - Norman Bethune Sanson (1862–1949) was the curator of the Banff Park Museum in Banff, Alberta from 1896 to 1932. Sanson traveled extensively through Banff, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks to collect specimens for the museum, and continued to volunteer for the museum for fifteen years after his retirement. Sanson was born in Toronto in 1862, the son of a clergyman. He traveled to the Canadian West with the Queen's Own Rifles, who were involved in the suppression of the North-West Rebellion of 1885. Finding employment as a bookkeeper at the Mount Brett sanitorium he became acquainted with a Mr. McLeod who was curator of the museum and the park meteorologist. Sanson took over McLeod's work on McLeod's death in 1896. In addition to his work at the Park Museum, he was a zookeeper at the Banff Zoo,established in 1905 on the grounds behind the Museum. In 1931 Sanson accompanied the King and Queen of Siam to the top of Sulphur Mountain. He accompanied King George VI to the top of Tunnel Mountain in 1939.Sanson remained active in the Banff community after his retirement, organizing snowshoeing expeditions and traveling extensively in North America and Europe, hiking in Britain and Europe. Sanson was in charge of the weather station on Sanson Peak, built there at his suggestion in 1903. The peak was named in his honor in 1948. Sanson made more than 1000 trips to the peak in his capacity as park meteorologist until 1945, when he was 84 years old.Sanson's reports were published in the Banff newspaper under the pseudonym "Seer Altitudinous." Sanson was a member of the Alpine Club of Canada and was the first president of the Skyline Hikers of the Canadian Rockies.He was active with St. George's Anglican Church in Banff and supported the Canadian Bible Society.

NORMAN BETHUNE SANSONE –
Norman Bethune Sanson (1862–1949) was the curator of the Banff Park Museum in Banff, Alberta from 1896 to 1932. Sanson traveled extensively through Banff, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks to collect specimens for the museum, and continued to volunteer for the museum for fifteen years after his retirement.
Sanson was born in Toronto in 1862, the son of a clergyman. He traveled to the Canadian West with the Queen’s Own Rifles, who were involved in the suppression of the North-West Rebellion of 1885. Finding employment as a bookkeeper at the Mount Brett sanitorium he became acquainted with a Mr. McLeod who was curator of the museum and the park meteorologist. Sanson took over McLeod’s work on McLeod’s death in 1896. In addition to his work at the Park Museum, he was a zookeeper at the Banff Zoo,established in 1905 on the grounds behind the Museum.
In 1931 Sanson accompanied the King and Queen of Siam to the top of Sulphur Mountain. He accompanied King George VI to the top of Tunnel Mountain in 1939.Sanson remained active in the Banff community after his retirement, organizing snowshoeing expeditions and traveling extensively in North America and Europe, hiking in Britain and Europe.
Sanson was in charge of the weather station on Sanson Peak, built there at his suggestion in 1903. The peak was named in his honor in 1948. Sanson made more than 1000 trips to the peak in his capacity as park meteorologist until 1945, when he was 84 years old.Sanson’s reports were published in the Banff newspaper under the pseudonym “Seer Altitudinous.”
Sanson was a member of the Alpine Club of Canada and was the first president of the Skyline Hikers of the Canadian Rockies.He was active with St. George’s Anglican Church in Banff and supported the Canadian Bible Society.

WEATHER STATION  -- View of the weather station perched on the summit of Sulphur Mountain just above where the dismantled Cosmic Ray Station once stood

WEATHER STATION —
View of the weather station perched on the summit of Sulphur Mountain just above where the dismantled Cosmic Ray Station once stood

WEATHER STATION

WEATHER STATION

WEATHR STATION INTERIOR

WEATHR STATION INTERIOR

—————–

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

The Banff Springs Hotel is a luxury hotel that was built during the 19th century as one of Canada’s grand railway hotels, being constructed in Scottish Baronial style and located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. The hotel was opened to the public on June 1, 1888.Presently, The Fairmont Banff Springs resort hotel is owned by OMERS and operated by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts of Toronto.

The original building was designed by American architect Bruce Price. It was built between spring 1887 and spring 1888 by the Canadian Pacific Railway at the instigation of its president, William Cornelius Van Horne.

The hotel is located within a spectacular setting in the Rocky Mountains, just above the Bow Falls, close to thermal springs. The main view from the hotel is across the valley and toward Mount Rundle, which frequently is cited in geology books for its exposed and tilted ancient seabeds. The hotel is within walking distance of the resort community of Banff.

Starting in 1911, a wholly new structure was built in stages to replace the 1888 hotel. Price’s Shingle style-influenced wooden structure was replaced with a new building of concrete and faced with stone.The new building was designed by another American architect, Walter S. Painter.

Halfway up the internal staircase closest to the Bow Falls is found a noted painting of William Davidson felling trees on the Miramichi River during colonial times. Davidson, who had grown up in Moray, close to Banff, Scotland, was the first European settler in that area of Canada. The name borne by the Canadian city and the national park is derived from his native country. The painting of the pioneer is by the war artist Cyrus Cunoe (1879–1916), who executed a series of paintings for the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Banff Springs Hotel is also reputedly haunted. Stories suggest a woman dressed in her wedding gown lost her life on the staircase. There were candles on the staircase when the bride was walking up them, when suddenly her dress caught fire, in a panic she tripped and fell down the stairs, dying from a broken neck. Many people have reported seeing her ghost in full wedding gown, often dancing in the ballroom.

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

Lake Louise, named Lake of the Little Fishes by the Stoney Natoka First Nations people, is a glacial lake within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located 5 km (3.1 mi) west of the Hamlet of Lake Louise and the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1).

Lake Louise is named after the Princess Louise Caroline Alberta (1848–1939), the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and the wife of the Marquess of Lorne, who was the Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883.

The emerald colour of the water comes from rock flour carried into the lake by melt-water from the glaciers that overlook the lake. The lake has a surface of 0.8 km2 (0.31 sq mi) and is drained through the 3 km long Louise Creek into the Bow River.

Fairmont’s Chateau Lake Louise, one of Canada’s grand railway hotels, is located on Lake Louise‘s eastern shore. It is a luxury resort hotel built in the early decades of the 20th century by the Canadian Pacific Railway.

LAKE LOUISE WITH BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

LAKE LOUISE WITH BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL

LAKE LOUISE

LAKE LOUISE

LAKE LOUISE

LAKE LOUISE

LAKE LOUISE SIGNS

LAKE LOUISE SIGNS

———

TUNNEL MOUNTAIN HOODOOS JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

These strange – some might even say unnatural-looking — sandstone spires created over thousands of years by erosion and believed to be spiritually significant among First Nations forefathers. Local Hoodoos can be seen from the Hoodoos Viewpoint, along Tunnel Mountain Road. They consist of sedimentary sandstone rock. Wind and water erosion shape these structures. Softer parts crumble down and harder parts stay behind like pillars.

A hoodoo (also called a tent rock, fairy chimney, and earth pyramid) is a tall, thin spire of rock that protrudes from the bottom of an arid drainage basin or badland. Hoodoos, which may range from 1.5–45 metres (4.9–147.6 ft), typically consist of relatively soft rock topped by harder, less easily eroded stone that protects each column from the elements. They generally form within sedimentary rock and volcanic rock formations.

Hoodoos are found mainly in the desert in dry, hot areas. In common usage, the difference between hoodoos and pinnacles or spires is that hoodoos have a variable thickness often described as having a “totem pole-shaped body”. A spire, on the other hand, has a smoother profile or uniform thickness that tapers from the ground upward. An example of a single spire, as an earth pyramid, is found at Aultderg Burn, near Fochabers, Scotland.

Hoodoos range in size from that of an average human to heights exceeding a 10-story building. Hoodoo shapes are affected by the erosional patterns of alternating hard and softer rock layers. Minerals deposited within different rock types cause hoodoos to have different colors throughout their height.

 

 

HOODOO  JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

HOODOO JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

 

 

HOODOO  JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

HOODOO JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

 

 

HOODOO  JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

HOODOO JUST OUTSIDE OF BANFF

————————-

 

 

BOW RIVER

The Bow River is a river in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, not to be confused with Bow River in the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia.

The river rises on the eastern edge of the Frankland State Forest and flows in a southerly direction discharging into Irwin Inlet, which opens to the Southern Ocean at Foul Bay.

Bow River is a fresh water river with potential to be used as a water source in the area.

The hamlet of Bow Bridge, once a timber milling and farming settlement, is located where the South Coast Highway crosses Bow River, about 25 km East of Walpole.

BOW RIVER

BOW RIVER

BOW RIVER

BOW RIVER

BOW RIVER

BOW RIVER

———–

MORAINE LAKE

Moraine Lake is a glacially-fed lake in Banff National Park, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) outside the Village of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. It is situated in the Valley of the Ten Peaks, at an elevation of approximately 6,183 feet (1,885 m). The lake has a surface area of .5 square kilometres (0.19 sq mi).

The lake, being glacially fed, does not reach its crest until mid to late June. When it is full, it reflects a distinct shade of blue. The color is due to the refraction of light off the rock flour deposited in the lake on a continual basis.

MORAINE LAKE

MORAINE LAKE

MORAINE LAKE

MORAINE LAKE

—————————

THE ICEFIELDS PARKWAY

The Icefields Parkway (French: Promenade des Glaciers), also known as Highway 93 north, is a scenic road in Alberta, Canada. It parallels the Continental Divide, traversing the rugged landscape of the Canadian Rockies, travelling through Banff National Park and Jasper National Park. It links Lake Louise with Jasper to the north.

The Icefields Parkway, 230 km (140 mi) long, was completed in 1940. It is named for features such as the Columbia Icefield, visible from the parkway.

The parkway is busy in July and August with up to 100,000 vehicles a month. The parkway is mainly two lanes with occasional passing lanes. It minimizes grades and hairpin turns but travellers must look out for wildlife, and vehicles stopped on the shoulder. Snow can be expected at any time of year and extreme weather is common in winter.

ICEFIELDS PARKWAY

ICEFIELDS PARKWAY

ICEFIELDS PARKWAY

ICEFIELDS PARKWAY

——————–

MALIGNE LAKE

Maligne Lake is a lake in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. It is famed for the color of its water, the surrounding peaks, the three glaciers visible from the lake and Spirit Island, one of the most photographed locations in the world. The lake is located 44 km (27 mi) south of Jasper town, and is accessible by motor vehicle, including shuttle buses from Jasper. Boat tours run to Spirit Island in the spring to autumn season. The 44 km Skyline Trail, Jasper’s most popular, highest and above treeline, multi day hike, begins at Maligne Lake and finishes near the town of Jasper. Other popular day hikes include the Opal Hills and Bald Hills loops. Winter activities include cross-country skiing.

Maligne Lake is approximately 22.5 km (14.0 mi) long and is 97 m (318 ft) at its deepest point, in the south end of the lake. It averages 35 m (115 ft) in depth. It sits at approximately 1,670 m (5,480 ft). Easily visible from the Maligne Lake Day Lodge are Leah and Samson Peaksand Mount Paul to the east, and Mounts Charlton, Unwin, Mary Vaux and Llysfran Peak to the south and west. The Charlton, Unwin and Maligne glaciers are visible from the lake, which boasts a self-sustaining population of introduced rainbow trout and brook trout. It is a popular spot for sport fishing, kayaking and canoeing. Parks Canada maintains two camping sites, accessible only by canoe, at Fisherman’s Bay and Coronet Creek.

Maligne Lake is fed and drained by the Maligne River, which enters the lake on its south side, near Mount Unwin and drains the lake to the north. Maligne Lake, as well as Maligne River, Maligne Mountain, and Maligne Pass, takes its name from the French word for malignant or wicked. The name was used by Father Pierre-Jean De Smet (1801–1873) to describe the turbulent river that flows from the lake (in the spring), and soon spread to the lake, canyon, pass, mountain and range. It is also possible that early French traders applied the name to the river for its treacherous confluence with the Athabasca River.

MALIGNE LAKE

MALIGNE LAKE

MALIGNE LAKE

MALIGNE LAKE

MALIGNE LAKE

MALIGNE LAKE

ATHABASCA FALLS

Athabasca Falls is a waterfall in Jasper National Park on the upper Athabasca River, approximately 30 kilometres south of the townsite of Jasper, Alberta, Canada, and just west of the Icefields Parkway. A powerful, picturesque waterfall, Athabasca Falls is not known so much for the height of the falls (23 metres), as it is known for its force due to the large quantity of water falling into the gorge. Even on a cold morning in the fall, when river levels tend to be at their lowest, copious amounts of water flow over the falls. The river ‘falls’ over a layer of hard quartzite and through the softer limestone below carving the short gorge and a number of potholes. The falls can be safely viewed and photographed from various viewing platforms and walking trails around the falls. Access is from the nearby parking lot, which leads off Highway 93A just northeast of the falls. Highway 93A takes off from the nearby Icefields Parkway, and crosses the falls on the way north to the town of Jasper. White water rafting often starts below the falls to travel downstream on the Athabasca River to Jasper.

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

ATHABASCA FALLS

—————–

JASPER, ALBERTA

Jasper is a specialized municipality in western Alberta, Canada. It is the commercial centre of Jasper National Park, located in the Canadian Rockies in the Athabasca River valley. Jasper is approximately 362 kilometres (225 mi) west of Edmonton and 290 kilometres (180 mi) north of Banff, Alberta at the intersection of the Yellowhead Highway (Highway 16) and the Icefields Parkway (Highway 93).

The Municipality of Jasper, comprising the Jasper townsite known as the Town of Jasper and a surrounding rural service area,was established as a specialized municipality on July 20, 2001. Governance is shared between the municipality and the federal Parks Canada agency.

Established in 1813, Jasper House was first a North West Company, and later Hudson’s Bay Company, fur trade outpost on the York Factory Express trade route to what was then called “New Caledonia” (now British Columbia), and Fort Vancouver in Columbia District on the lower Columbia River.

Jasper National Park was established in 1907. The railway siding at the location of the future townsite was established by Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in 1911 and originally named Fitzhugh after a Grand Trunk vice president (along the Grand Trunk’s “alphabet” line). The Canadian Northern Railway also began service to Fitzhugh in 1912.[ The townsite was surveyed in 1913 by H. Matheson, and subsequently renamed Jasper after the former fur trade post. By 1931, Jasper was accessible by road from Edmonton, and in 1940 the scenic Icefields Parkway opened, connecting Banff and Jasper.

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA

JASPER, ALBERTA  -  RAILWAY STATION

JASPER, ALBERTA – RAILWAY STATION

JASPER, ALBERTA  -  Because of Jasper National Park‘s position along the early Canadian railroad, the town has been the proud owner of a magnificent Haida totem pole for nearly a century. If you’ve ever been to the Jasper train station, you’ve surely seen the towering colorful work of art. The Haida people were the indigenous population of the northwest coast of North America. A master carver designed the original pole in the Queen Charlotte Islands sometime in the late 1800s (1870-1880). Experts say the large raven figure symbolizes the pole’s original owner’s family’s membership within the Raven clan of Haida society. In Haida culture, totem poles honor tribal leaders and families. Jasper’s Raven Totem Pole features figures representing long-standing Haida myths about “frog woman,” “grizzly bear mother,” “old woman” and “bullhead.” When what was known as the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway opened a northern rail route across the Canadian Rockies in 1914, a feature of the route was fine Haida totem poles that were acquired by the rail company to display at the Jasper and Prince Rupert stations.

JASPER, ALBERTA – Because of Jasper National Park‘s position along the early Canadian railroad, the town has been the proud owner of a magnificent Haida totem pole for nearly a century. If you’ve ever been to the Jasper train station, you’ve surely seen the towering colorful work of art.
The Haida people were the indigenous population of the northwest coast of North America. A master carver designed the original pole in the Queen Charlotte Islands sometime in the late 1800s (1870-1880). Experts say the large raven figure symbolizes the pole’s original owner’s family’s membership within the Raven clan of Haida society.
In Haida culture, totem poles honor tribal leaders and families. Jasper’s Raven Totem Pole features figures representing long-standing Haida myths about “frog woman,” “grizzly bear mother,” “old woman” and “bullhead.”
When what was known as the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway opened a northern rail route across the Canadian Rockies in 1914, a feature of the route was fine Haida totem poles that were acquired by the rail company to display at the Jasper and Prince Rupert stations.

—————

WILDLIFE SEEN AROUND JASPER, ALBERTA

 

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

 

 

 

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

 

 

 

 

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

 

 

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

 

 

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

WILDLIFE AT JASPER, ALBERTA

——————————————-

 

THE COLUMBIA ICEFIELD

The Columbia Icefield is an icefield located in the Canadian Rockies, astride the Continental Divide of North America. The icefield lies partly in the northwestern tip of Banff National Park and the southern end of Jasper National Park. It is about 325 km² in area, 100 to 365 metres (328 to 1,197 ft) in depth and receives up to seven metres (275 in) of snowfall per year. The icefield feeds eight major glaciers, including:

Parts of the Icefield are visible from the Icefields Parkway. The Athabasca Glacier has receded significantly since its greatest modern-era extent in 1844. During the summer months visitors to the area can travel onto the glacier in the comfort of large “snowcoaches”. The Columbia Icefield is also a major destination for ski mountaineering in the winter months.

The icefield was first reported in 1898 by J. Norman Collie and Hermann Woolley after they had completed the first ascent of Mount Athabasca.

The Athabasca River and the North Saskatchewan River originate in the Columbia Icefield, as do tributary headwaters of the Columbia River.As the icefield is atop a triple Continental Divide these waters flow ultimately north to the Arctic Ocean, east to Hudson Bay (and thence to the North Atlantic Ocean), and south and west to the Pacific Ocean. Hudson Bay, in some watershed divisions, is considered to be in the Arctic watershed, in which case this would arguably not be a triple continental divide point.

The Athabasca Glacier is one of the six principal ‘toes’ of the Columbia Icefield, located in the Canadian Rockies. The glacier currently recedes at a rate of about 5 metres (16 ft) per year and has receded more than 1.5 km (0.93 mi) in the past 125 years and lost over half of its volume. The glacier moves down from the icefield at a rate of several centimetres per day. Due to its close proximity to the Icefields Parkway, between the Alberta towns of Banff and Jasper, and rather easy accessibility, it is the most visited glacier in North America. The leading edge of the glacier is within easy walking distance; however, travel onto the glacier is not recommended unless properly equipped. Hidden crevasses have led to the deaths of unprepared tourists.

The Icefield Interpretive Center, closed during the winter (mid-October to mid-April), stands across from the glacier. It is used as a lodge and for ticket sales for sightseeing on the glacier. Standard buses transport tourists to the glacier edge, where they board specially designed snow coaches for transport over the steep grades, snow and ice part way up the glacier.

The glacier is approximately 6 km (3.7 mi) long, covers an area of 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi), and is measured to be between 90–300 metres (300–980 ft) thick.

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER  -  PEOPLE STANDING ON THE ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER – PEOPLE STANDING ON THE ATHABASCA GLACIER

ATHABASCA GLACIER SIGNS

ATHABASCA GLACIER SIGNS

ATHABASCA GLACIER SIGNS

ATHABASCA GLACIER SIGNS

————————

POEMS OF THE CANADIAN ROCKIES

WILD CANADIAN ROCKIES

BY JOHNNY COBB

The remote Canadian wilderness
Majestic forests of fir, spruce and pine.
The abundance of animal wildlife
Longhorn sheep, grizzlies, moose and porcupines.

Sno-Coach ride to Athabasca Glacier
On the glistening Columbia Icefields.
A gondola ride at Jasper or Banff
What an awesome sight this mountain view yields.

Pet one hundred forty one sled dogs
At Canmore’s Kennels of the Snowy Owl.
And at Golden’s Northern Lights Wolf Center
Watch the wild wolves yip, moan and howl.

Your eyes strain at Kootenay’s green vastness
Drive hundreds of miles on Trans-Canada 1.
As you head toward the mighty Pacific
Enjoy B.C.’s Natural Fun!

Fly-fish, hike or raft through these Rockies
Stunning beauty at Louise and Moraine Lakes.
Explore Yoho’s Wapta or Takakkaw Falls
A repeat trip you’ll soon want to make. 

———————-

Mountain Majesty

by David Ronald Bruce Pekrul

On the western horizon where the sun goes to bed,
there stands the Canadian Rockies,
so majestic in size,
solid and immovable,
yet fluid and ever-changing.

I am awed by their beauty,
the way the sun reflects off the snow,
making them seem closer than they really are,
a three-dimensional monolith sitting in my own backyard,
sometimes shrouded in clouds,
or resting under the halo of the sun,
while their crevasses hide in the shadows.

At times a mist covers their peaks,
and they are subdued,
as if a veil has been pulled across the landscape,
making them seem distant and one-dimensional,
a flat backdrop at the edge of a rolling prairie.

And as the sun sets beyond this mighty fortress of rock,
painting a canvass of red, pink and orange,
the mountains sit in silhouette,
dark and foreboding,
as if hiding a secret deep within their walls.

Spring now gently invades this frozen rock,
and as the snow melts,
the hillsides turn green,
and palettes of colour dot the meadows.

The mountains are alive with movement,
new birth,
struggles for survival,
and death.

The cycle of life is being played out in their bosom,
yet from a distance,
as I survey their silent grandeur,
they appear to be indifferent to the drama taking place within.

Spring becomes summer,
penetrating much of this rugged world,
but the highest peak is buried in ice year-round,
a giant glacier,
the birthplace of mighty rivers.

I have stood on that glacier,
drank from its cold, clear waters,
as they cascade down the ice,
water so pure,
as if the world is new,
and being touched for the very first time,
a frozen paradise,
a fragile cradle of microscopic life.

I love these mountains,
for their beauty never tires,
and I am content to live in their shadows.

————-

TRAVEL HAIKU  –  BANFF, ALBERTA

 JOHN TIONG CHUNGHOO

Banff Jasper Highway
the only animal out of place
us

Banff is one of the most magnificent parks in the world to view wildlife, with views along the Banff-Jasper Highway affording glimpses of moose, bear, eagles, elk, big horn sheep, and mountain goat, as well as grand snowcapped peaks, electric-blue lakes, and endless forests. Wildlife is so abundant that animal tunnels have been installed under the highway to accommodate the frequent moose crossings, and elk can often be seen roaming the streets of Banff, Lake Louise, and Jasper.

—-

HAIKU  –  ALBERTA’S SUNRISE

JOHN TIONG CHUNGHOO
Alberta Sunrise
we reminisce about the good
and bad times

Canyon hike
the fishes too out
with their friends

village chapel
this evening just me
and mary

———————

 

 

PHOTOS:

LEONARD EPSTEIN

JANELLE BURGESS

Advertisements
No comments yet

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: